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太阳极紫外成像光谱仪光学系统研究
刘壮
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor巩岩
2014-07
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Degree Discipline光学工程
Abstract近年来,随着空间技术的发展,人们对太阳活动和空间环境的变化越来越关注。在极紫外波段对太阳进行超光谱成像观测是研究太阳大气物理特性的重要手段。太阳极紫外成像光谱仪用以观测极紫外波段的具有空间分辨率的光谱辐射线,这些辐射线信息是研究日冕变热、太阳风加速等太阳活动机理的必要条件。因此,开展太阳极紫外成像光谱仪光学系统研究具有重要意义。     本文的工作主要围绕太阳极紫外成像光谱仪光学系统研制过程中所需的光学系统设计、超环面基底加工与检测、极紫外全息光栅设计与制备以及超环面面形检测等几项关键技术展开。     总结了极紫外探测的特点,对极紫外成像光谱仪的重要结构进行了分析和比较,选择了望远系统与凹面光栅结合形式的色散型成像光谱仪,介绍了色散型成像光谱仪的工作原理,凹面光栅的成像与色散原理,给出了超环面等间距光栅与超环面变间距光栅的像差校正理论。 根据观测太阳活动的应用需求,结合国内外极紫外成像光谱仪发展现状,制定了太阳极紫外成像光谱仪的性能指标。讨论了可用于极紫外波段的光学元件,对具体元件做了选择。针对两种常用光学结构,设计了两种太阳极紫外成像光谱仪光学系统,分别给出了设计过程、设计结果、公差分析结果与光学传输效率计算结果。     介绍了超光滑超环面基底加工过程,对超环面半径检测的几种方法作了研究,利用球形样板法检测了超环面的半径。分析了超光滑基底表面粗糙度检测方法,分别利用原子力显微镜与光学轮廓仪检测了基底表面的粗糙度,检测结果表明加工工艺达到了超光滑的水平。根据光栅标量衍射理论设计了两种极紫外光栅槽型。介绍了全息光栅加工过程,加工了极紫外光栅。设计了两种宽带极紫外多层膜系,依照其中一种设计结果为光栅沉积了多层膜,介绍了极紫外多层膜沉积过程。     针对干涉仪无法直接检测超环面面形的问题,提出利用柱面镜以及正交平板玻璃零位补偿检测超环面的两种方法。分别给出了这两种方法的补偿原理,总结出补偿的误差源与误差估计值,针对每种方法设计了典型表面的检测光路,计算了总误差。检测光路与总误差的计算结果说明了这两种方法的可行性。
Other AbstractIn recent years, people are increasingly concerned about the activity of solar and the change of space environment as the development of space technology. Hyper-spectral imaging observation of solar in the EUV is an important method for the study of solar atmosphere’s physical characteristics. Solar EUV imaging spectrometer is used to observe the EUV spectral radiation with spatial resolution. The information of the EUV radiation is important condition for the research of the mechanism of solar activity like corona heating and solar wind acceleration. Therefore, carrying out the study of optical system for solar EUV imaging spectrometer is of great significance. This paper focus on the key technologies which required for the development process of optical system for solar EUV imaging spectrometer, including: optical system design, toroidal substrate fabrication and testing, EUV holographic grating design and fabrication, and toroidal profile testing etc.    The characteristic of EUV detection is summarized. Every optical structure of the EUV imaging spectrometer is analyzed and comparison, the structure of dispersive imaging spectrometer with telescope system and concave grating is selected. Working theory of dispersive imaging spectrometer, the imaging and dispersion theory of concave grating are introduced. The aberration correcting theory of toroidal uniform-line-space grating and toroidal varied-line-space grating are given.    According to the application requirements of solar activity’s observations, combined with the domestic and international development status of solar EUV imaging spectrometer, performance parameters for solar EUV imaging spectrometer are drew up. The characteristics of every optical element are discussed, the specific optical elements are choice. Two optical systems for solar EUV imaging spectrometer are designed for different structures, the design progresses, design results, results of tolerance analysis and the optical transmission efficiency are given respectively.    Fabrication process of super-smooth toroidal substrate is described, methods of testing the radius of the toroidal surface are studied, and radius of the toroidal surface is tested by the spherical-model method. Measurement methods for the roughness of super-smooth toroidal surface are studied, roughness of the substrate surface is tested by atom force microscope and optical profiler respectively, the test result reveal that the surface has up to the standard of super-smooth. Two kinds of EUV grating groove are designed according to the scalar diffraction theory. The hologram ion beam etching process is described, and the EUV grating is fabricated. Two kinds of broad-band EUV multilayer are designed, the grating is coated with one design result, and deposition process of EUV multilayer is described.    Aim at the problem of toroidal surface’s profile cannot be tested by interferometer directly, methods of null compensating testing toroidal surface with cylindrical lens and orthorhombic plane plate are present, the compensating theories of these methods are given, the error source and error estimated value are summed up, typical optical paths are designed for a typical toroidal surface by every method, total errors are calculated, optical paths and total error calculated results show the feasibility of these methods.
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ciomp.ac.cn/handle/181722/41446
Collection中科院长春光机所知识产出
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘壮. 太阳极紫外成像光谱仪光学系统研究[D]. 中国科学院大学,2014.
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